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مُساهمةموضوع: بحث فى تعلم اللغه من الكومبيوتر(دودو)   الثلاثاء ديسمبر 02, 2008 3:54 pm


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Computer-assisted language learning
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Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is a form of computer-based accelerated learning which carries two important features: bidirectional learning and individualized learning. It is not a method. CALL materials are tools for learning. The focus of CALL is learning, and not teaching. CALL materials are used in teaching to facilitate the language learning process. It is a student-centered accelerated learning material, which promotes self-paced accelerated learning.

Contents [hide]
1 Definition
2 Technologies used in CALL instruction
2.1 Software
2.2 Internet-based
3 History
4 CALL and computational linguistics
5 Theoretical basis for CALL instruction design
6 Role changes for teachers and students
6.1 Teachers
6.2 Students
7 Use of CALL for the four skills
8 Multimedia language centers
9 Advantages of CALL
9.1 Motivation
9.2 Adapting learning to the student
9.3 Authenticity
9.4 Critical thinking skills
10 Problems and criticisms of CALL instruction
11 References
12 Further reading
13 Professional associations
14 Professional journals
14.1 Journals dedicated to CALL
14.2 Journals that regularly include CALL articles
15 See also
16 External links



[edit] Definition
CALL originates from CAI (Computer-Accelerated Instruction), a term that was first viewed as an aid for teachers. The philosophy CALL emphasizes more on student-centered lessons allowing the learners to learn on their own using structured and/or unstructured interactive lessons. These lessons carry 2 important features: bidirectional (interactive) learning and individualized learning. CALL is not a method. It is a tool that helps teachers to facilitate language learning process. CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the classrooms. It can also be used as remedial to help learners with limited language proficiency.

The design of CALL lessons generally takes into consideration principles of language pedagogy, which may be derived from learning theories (behaviorist, cognitive, and constructivist) and second language learning such as Krashen's Monitor Theory.

Others may call CALL an approach to teaching and learning foreign languages whereby the computer and computer-based resources such as the Internet are used to present, reinforce and assess material to be learned. CALL can be made independent of the Internet. It can stand alone for example in a CDROM format. Depending on its design and objectives, it may include a substantial interactive element especially when CALL is integrated in web-based format. It may include the search for and the investigation of applications in language teaching and learning. [1] Except for self-study software, CALL is meant to supplement face-to-face language instruction, not replace it.[2]

CALL has also been known by several other terms such as technology-enhanced language learning (TELL), computer-accelerated language instruction (CALI) and computer-aided language learning but the field is the same. [3] For further information see the ICT4LT website, especially Section 1 of Module 1.4, headed "What is CALL?": Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) is a subset of both Mobile Learning (m-learning) and Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL).


[edit] Technologies used in CALL instruction
The technologies used in CALL instruction generally fall into two categories, software and Internet-based activities.


[edit] Software
Authoring programs allow instructors to program part or all of the content to be learned and program part or all of how the content is to be learned. Some examples of these programs include Hotpotatoes, WinCALIS, Clozemaster, Choicemaster and Multitester. With these, the format is pre-programmed and the instructor puts in the material. General authoring programs like Macromedia Director can be used to make an entire course; however, most teachers do not have the time or the technical ability to make use of such programs. [1]

A courseware used in a CALL environment can be designed specifically for foreign/second language learning or adapted for this purpose. Most language textbook publishers offer educational software of some sort, whether it is meant to support a paper textbook or to stand alone for self-study. [4]

Most programs designed for language learning are tutorials. These generally are drill programs that consist of a brief introduction plus a series of questions to which the learner responds and then the computer gives some kind of feedback. With these kinds of programs, the material to be learned may already be programmed in by the publisher, which is more common, or may allow the teacher to program in the material to be learned. Yet, there are also integrated CALL programs, especially web-based CALL programs that combine tutorials, exercises (interactive multimedia drill-practice lessons), tests, and language enrichment materials. In fact, the site, where multimedia CALL lessons are offered, may also include e-forum and chat for the language learners to extend their learning process in a more dynamic atmosphere.


[edit] Internet-based
The World Wide Web was launched in 1992 reaching the general public by 1993, opening up new possibilities in CALL. [1]

Internet activities vary considerably, from online versions of software (where the learner interacts with a networked computer), to computer-mediated communication (where the learner interacts with other people via the computer), to applications that combine these two elements.

Nowadays, websites that cater to foreign-language learners, especially those learning English, are so numerous and varied that it can be very difficult to determine where to begin. [2] There are even meta-sites dedicated to trying to give a starting point such as Dave’s ESL Café, LLRC Recommended Sources and Free Language. Many of these websites are based on the drill-exercise format but some also include games such as Hangman. [1]

Computer-managed communication (CMC) has been around in one form or another since the 1960’s but only became widely available to the general public since the early 1990’s. CMC comes in two basic forms: asynchronous, such as email and forums, and synchronous, such as text chat, voice chat and audio- and video-conferencing (e.g. using Skype). With such facilities learners can communicate in the target language with other real speakers cheaply, 24 hours a day. Learners can communicate one-to-one or one-to-many as well as sharing audio and video files. Because of all this, CMC has had a considerable impact on language teaching. Special interest groups, such as the EUROCALL CMC SIG have been set up to further the use of CMC in language learning and teaching.


[edit] History
CALL’s origins and development trace back to the 1960’s (Delcloque 2000). Since the early days CALL has developed into a symbiotic relationship between the development of technology and pedagogy.

Warschauer (1996) divided the development of CALL into three phases: Behavioristic CALL, Communicative CALL and Integrative CALL (Multimedia and the Internet)[3]. Bax (2003) perceived the three phases as Restricted, Open and Integrated - and there have been several other attempts to categorize the history of CALL: see the ICT4LT website (Section 3 of Module 1.4)].

Behavioristic CALL is defined by the then-dominant behavioristic theories of learning of Skinner as well as the technological limitations of computers from the 1960’s to the early 1980’s. Up to the late 1970’s, CALL was confined to universities where programs were developed on big mainframe computers, like the PLATO project, initiated at the University of Illinois in 1960. Because repeated exposure to material was considered to be beneficial or even essential, computers were considered ideal for this aspect of learning as the machines did not get bored or impatient with learners and the computer could present material to the student as his/her own pace and even adapt the drills to the level of the student. Hence, CALL programs of this era presented a stimulus to which the learner provided a response. At first, both could be done only through text. The computer would analyze errors and give feedback. More sophisticated programs would react to students’ mistakes by branching to help screens and remedial activities. While such programs and their underlying pedagogy still exist today, to a large part behavioristic approaches to language learning have been rejected and the increasing sophistication of computer technology has lead CALL to other possibilities.

Communicative CALL is based on the communicative approach that became prominent in the late 1970’s and 1980’s. In the communicative approach, the focus is on using the language rather than analysis of the language, teaching grammar implicitly. It also allowed for originality and flexibility in student output of language. It also correlates with the arrival of the PC, making computing much widely available resulting in a boom in the development of software for language learning. The first CALL software in this phase still provided skill practice but not in a drill format, for example, paced reading, text reconstruction and language games but computer remained the tutor. In this phase, however, computers provided context for students to use the language, such as asking for directions to a place. It also allowed for programs not designed for language learning, such as Sim City, Sleuth and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego? to be used for language learning. However, criticisms of this approach include using the computer in an ad hoc and disconnected manner for more marginal rather than the central aims of language teaching. It usually taught skills such as reading and listening in a compartmentalized way, even if not in a drill fashion.

Integrative/explorative CALL, starting from the 1990’s, tries to address these criticisms by integrating the teaching of language skills into tasks or projects to provide direction and coherence. It also coincides with the development of multimedia technology (providing text, graphics, sound and animation) as well as computer-mediated communication. CALL in this period saw a definitive shift of use of computer for drill and tutorial purposes (computer as a finite authoritative base for a specific task) to a medium for extending education beyond the classroom and reorganizing instruction. Multimedia CALL started with interactive laser videodiscs such as “Montevidisco” (Schneider & Bennion 1984) and “A la rencontre de Philippe” (Fuerstenberg 1993, all of which were simulations of situations where the learner played a key role. These programs later were transferred to CD-ROMs, and new RPGs such as Who is Oscar Lake? made their appearance in a range of different languages.

In multimedia programs, listening is combined with seeing, just like in the real world. Students also control the pace and the path of the interaction. Interaction is in the foreground but many CALL programs also provide links to explanations simultaneously. An example of this is Dustin’s simulation of a foreign student’s arrival in the USA. Programs like this led also to what is called explorative CALL.

More recent research in CALL has favored a learner-centered explorative approach, where students are encouraged to try different possible solutions to a problem, for example the use of concordance programs. This approach is also described as data-driven learning (DDL), a term coined by Tim Johns. See Module 2.4 at the ICT4LT site, Using concordance programs in the Modern Foreign Languages classroom.
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